Artocarpus Heterophyllus Lamk

Botanical Name: Artocarpus Heterophyllus Lamk

Sanskrit Name: Panasa

Family Name: MORACEAE

Description

Vernacular names :

Common name – Jack fruit

  1. Hindi – kanthal
  2. Kannada – halasu, hebhalasu
  3. Malayalam – chakka (fruit), plavu (tree)
  4. Tamil – murasabalam, pala, pila, pila palam

Synonyms

Kantaki phala, amalasaya phala

Introduction

It is a ever green tree reaching a hieght of about 20 m. It is found in many parts of India.Panasa is decribed under Phala varga in the BrhatTray! texts. It is also quoted by the nighantu writers as nutritions and tonic.

Jackfruit is one of the most popular   fruits in South India. It enjoys special favour in home gardens on the west coast and is used as one of the shade trees in coffee, areca, cardamom and pepper plantations. Owing to its numerous culinary uses and its availability in plenty during the heavy monsoon rains, jackfruit has earned the well deserved name “poor man’s food”. 

Varieties

Because of seed propagation, the existing population of jack comprises innumerable trees differing from each other in such fruit characters as shape, size and quality. Though no varieties can be recognised, it is possible to divide the cultivated jack into groups by the quality of fruit. About thirty such groups (types) are recognised. Broadly jack is classified into two groups, one with firm flesh and the other with soft flesh. The soft pulp group is known locally as ghula, vela, koozha, ghila, tsjakapa or kappa. The mature pericarp of this group is comparatively small in size. The juice is either thin or thick, colour varies from pale yellow to dark or golden yellow. Pulp is generally mushy or soft   and of varying quality ranging from sweet to insipid. The seeds are comparatively large. The hard pulp group is locally known as varikka, varcha, kujja, karcha or harka. In thisthe pulp is crisp and generally highly flavoured and therefore relished. The juice is scanty and the seeds are comparatively small [Sham Singh et al, 234;   Lal,

Gardening, 1956-59, 1(5), 31; Murthy, Indian Coffee, 1965, 29(1), 14; Dutta, Indian J Hort, 1956, 13, 189].

 

Several sub-groups are recognised depending upon the taste, shape and size of the fruit. One of these is rudrakshi, a small fruited type, with smooth and less spiny rind than the common jack and having a less fleshy perianth. There are also certain old trees in Assam which show a tendency to produce fruits during off-seasons. These are designated as baro-mahia or baro-meshe. Ceylon jack or Singapore jack is a recent introduction in South India. It is an early maturing variety and comes into bearing in about 18 months under favourable conditions in low elevations but may take more time at higher elevations. It generally matures off-season from November to February. Fruit is a hard-fleshed varikka. In Assam two broad varieties are further delineated on the shape of the fruit. Soft pulp variety is divided into six varieties 111′, ‘V2′, `V3′, `V4′, `V5′ and 1/6′ and hard pulp into two varieties. `V,’ and ‘VB’ (Murthy, loc. cit.; Richards, Trop Agriculturist, 1950,106, 12; Dutta, loc. cit.).

Botanical details

A large, evergreen tree, 10-15 m in height, indigenous to the evergreen forests of the western ghats at altitudes of 450-1,200 m, and cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India. Stem straight, cylindrical, covered with smooth or slightly rough bark; bark green or black, 1.25 cm thick, exuding milky latex; leaves broad 5-25 cm x 3.5-12 cm, obovate-elliptic to elliptic, decurrent, glabrous, entire;
inflorescence solitary axillary, cauliflorous and ramif-lorous on short leafy shoots, male heads sessile or on short peduncled receptacles, sometimes borne on the ultimate twigs, female heads on oblong ovoid receptacle with simple spathulate styles exserted to 1.5 mm; syncarp 30-100 cm x 25-30 cm, cylindric or somewhat clavate, yellow, drying to brown with a strong sweet odour, covered with closely set, firm, tapering, obtuse, minutely hispid processes; fruiting perianths numerous, proximal free region yellow, markedly fleshy, firm, with a thickened stalk, remaining attached to wall and core; ‘seeds’ (separated horny endocarps enclosed by sub-gelatinous exocarps 1 mm thick) oblong-ellipsoid c 30 x 15-20 mm.

Distribution

Southern part of india

Chemical constituents

13-carotene, aurantiamide, morin, dihydromorin, artocarpin, isoartocarpin, artocarpesin etc.

Chemical composition and utilization

  • Jackfruit is essentially a carbohydrate food and therefore,   useful   as a   source of energy.The fruiting perianths (bulbs), seeds and rind constitute 29, 12 and 59 per cent of the ripe fruit, respectively. The perianths are rich in sugars; a fair amount of carotene is also present but they are poor in vitamin C. They contain protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus and iron in quantities normally present in other fruits. The sugars present in the fruit are: fructose, 1.74; glucose, 5.96; and sucrose, 6.9%. The rind of the ripe fruits and the edible portion of the raw fruit are mostly fibrous and fairly rich in calcium and pectin. The fruit also contains niacin (400 µg/100 g), folic acid (5.32 pg/100 g) and oxalic acid (27 mg/100 g) (Bhatia et al, Indian J agric Sci, 1955, 25, 303; Chan Jr & Heu, J Fd Sci,1975, 40, 1329; Sen Gupta, Indian J appl Chem, 1958, 21, 45; Lontoc et al, Philipp J Sci, 1966, 95, 311; Nutritive Value of Indian Foods, 129).
  • The fruit pulp on hydrolysis gave rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, glucose, galactose, galacturonic acid and pectic acid. It also contains P-carotene (240 pg/100 g) and on keeping at 25-30° for six months shows retention of 97 per   cent   of   P-carotene.   li-Carotene   is   vital   for preservation of jackfruit and making it available off season and at places away from the centres of production. Jackfruit can be best canned if its pH is adjusted at 4.5 by adding 0.75-1.0 per cent citric acid or by canning it in ,combination with more acidic fruits like mango and pineapple [Chem Abstr, 1964, 61, 4460; CSIR News, 1956, 6(8), 3; Bhatia et al, J Sci Fd Agric, 1956, 7, 531].

 

  • Essential amino acid composition of the proteins of the tender jackfruit (total N, 0.42 g% of edible portion) is as follows: arginine, 92; cystine, 1.44; histidine, 0.96; leucine, 8.0; isoleucine, 7.2; lysine, 4.8; methionine, 1.44; phenylalanine, 7.68; threonine, 5.76; tryptophan, 1.28; and valine, 8.8 g/16 gN_ Trace elements reported to bepresent in the edible portion of the tender jack are: sodium, 35; phosphorus, 328; magnesium, 30 mg/100 g; and copper, 220 pgJ100 g (Nutritive Value of Indian Foods, 118, 144; Guttikar et al, Indian J Nutr Dietet, 1966, 3, 4).

 

  • The seeds are mostly starchy and contain fair amounts of protein, calcium and thiamine and have good pectin content.   They   have average jellying   properties.   A dipeptide, aurantiamide acetate has been isolated from the seeds (yield, 0.0004%). The seeds contain: magnesium,0; sodium, 63.2; phosphorus, 246.0; copper, 0.19; sulphur, 356.0; chlorine, 14.0; oxalic acid, 4.0; and choline, 52.0   mg/100 g. The   essential   amino   acid composition of the seed protein is as follows: cystine, 0.96; leucine, 5.3; isoleucine, 4.8; lysine, 5.8; phenylalanine, 4.2; methionine, 0.8; threonine, 4.3; tryptophan, 1.12; and valine, 45 g/16 gN (Bhatia et al, Indian J agric Sci, 1955, 25, 303; Nutritive Value of Indian Foods, 131, 138, 148; Chakraborty & Mandal, J Indian chem Soc, 1981, 58,103; Francis & Bell, Trop Sci, 1975, 17, 32).

Properties

Rasa – madhura , kasaya

Guna – guru, snigdha

Virya – sita

Vipaka – madhura

Karma – pitta- vata hara, sukrala, balya, brimhana

Indications

Raktha pitta, krisa, vrana, gulma

Part used

Root bark, leaf, fruit, latex

Dosage

Decoction 50-100 ml

Therapeutic uses

Apachi- application of panasa root paste will be helpful

  1. A healthy food – One of the main benefits of jackfruit is the high availability of the fruit and nutritional value of it. It is a fundamental part of the Indian diet , reason why it is known as ” the fruit of the poor.”
  1. Ripe fruit also contains energy as carbohydrate ( 20g. per 100g . ) , High doses of calcium (up to 72 mg . Per 100g . More than milk ) and potassium ( 323 mg . Per 100g . ) Suitable for preventing fluid retention.
  1. Diabetes – It has anti-diabetic properties because it increases glucose tolerance in people with blood sugar problems . The jackfruit extract is used for medicine in India and Sri Lanka to treat diabetes because it contains several principles with hypoglycemic effects .
  1. Scientific studies have shown that, in addition to these properties, it can help lower cholesterol and triglycerides. These components are found in the leaves and jackfruit leaf extract . (Take jackfruit leaves aqueous extract under medical supervision)
  1. Stomach ulcer- Jackfruit contains antiseptic , anti-inflammatory and antioxidants substances that help in the healing of stomach ulcers . (Take jackfruit boiled as food)
  1. Constipation- jackfruit pulp is used for the treatment of constipation . This pulp is rich in mucilage and lignans . It also contains a sticky resin , components that provide laxative properties. Eating jackfruit stimulates bowel movements and helps regulate the intestine. (Take jackfruit in food )
  1. Antioxidant – It is a source of natural antioxidants such as vitamin C , betulinic acid and different types of carotenoids ( Scientific studies have found more than 45 different polyphenols ) . These components are able to repair the damage produced in cells by oxidation , smoking , stress, etc. . They can also help improve cardiovascular health and prevent poor circulation. (Take jackfruit in food )
  2. Osteoporosis – jackfruits are fruits rich in calcium , containing more than milk (up to 70 mg . 100 g . ) . It also contains vitamin C , which helps absorb calcium and other important minerals for strong bones as magnesium and boron.
  1. Anti-inflammatory- It contains flavonoids with anti-inflammatory properties , including flavonoids , suitable for treating diseases such as arthritis, or inflammatory diets .
  1. Nervous system- Jackfruit is a tropical fruit with a high content in thiamine and niacin , with a higher contribution than mango or banana . A piece of 100 g . of pulp provides 4 mg of niacin, a quarter of the needs of an adult’s daily vitamin . It is an energy food suitable when physical or mental fatigue , stress, muscle weakness, and for athletes, as these vitamins allow favor nutrition of nerve cells and muscle fibers.
  1. Skin cancer – Jackfruit has protective properties against skin cancer. Scientific studies have found a type of flavones can inhibit melanin synthesis in the body. Due to these properties ,Jackfruit may have a role in the treatment of melanoma.
  1. Skin spots – Because of its properties to inhibit the production of melanin, jackfruit may be appropriate as a remedy for skin blemishes and hyperpigmentation.

Other benefits of jack fruit

  • Boosts Immune System Functioning

Jackfruit or Jack fruit is an excellent source of the vitamins like C and A which have antioxidant property and boosts the immune system functioning.

  • Prevents from Seasonal Diseases

As it enhances the body immunity, it protects from various seasonal and common diseases such as cold, flu, cough, fever and etc.

Benefits of Jackfruit for Cancer

  • Prevents from Cancer

Because of being a rich source of phytonutrients, antioxidants, flavonoids and fatty acids, it is very useful for the cancer prevention.

  • Rich Source of Antioxidant

High level of antioxidant compounds makes it able to protect body from the harmful effects of oxygen free radicals thus prevents from various cancers of colon, breast, stomach, lung, prostate, oral cavity and etc.

  • Prevents from Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage

Its antioxidant nature prevents from the oxidative stress and DNA damage (which promotes cancer cells development) caused due to the free radicals.

  • Removes Toxins and Protects from Colon Cancer

Its richness of dietary fibers cleans out all the toxins from colon which reduces the chance of occurrence of colon cancer.

  • Protects from Lung and Oral Cavity Cancer

Vitamin A and carotenes found in it helps in protecting from the lung and oral cavity cancers.

  • Prevents from Ageing

It is rich source of some other phytonutrients called isoflavones, lignans, saponins and etc having anti-cancer and anti-aging property thus keeps body away from the cancer and early aging.

  • Keeps Away from Thyroid Gland Disorders

Copper mineral found in it actively participate in the thyroid metabolism, production and absorption thus keeps away from the disorders of this gland.

Benefits of Artocarpus Heterophyllus Lamk for Heart

  • Maintains Electrolyte Balance

Jack fruit helps in maintaining normal blood pressure as it rich source of potassium which is required to maintain the sodium and body fluid level in order to balance the electrolyte level thus reduces the risk of hypertension, stroke, heart failure, heart attack and etc cardiovascular problems.

  • It is Heart Friendly

It is very heart friendly as vitamin B6 found in it helps in reducing the blood level of homocysteine.

  • Lowers Bad Cholesterol Level

By lowering down the bad cholesterol level in blood it prevents the formation of plaque in the arteries, blockage of arteries and etc.

Benefits of Artocarpus Heterophyllus Lamk (Jackfruit) for Digestive System

  • Improves Digestion

Eating jack fruit on regular basis helps in improving the digestion as it contains high amount of dietary fibers which provides it laxative property.

  • Prevents Digestive Disorders

It helps in preventing from the digestive disorders including constipation, piles and etc by regulating the bowel movements.

  • Cures Ulcers

It is strong anti-ulcerative in nature which makes it able to cure ulcers as well as various digestive system disorders.

Benefits of Jackfruit for Skin

  • Delays Ageing

It prevents skin from the symptoms of early ageing due to environmental pollution, free radicals, UV rays, oxidative stress, smoke, tension and etc.

  • Nourishes Skin

Its antioxidant property helps in nourishing the skin and slows down ageing by destroying free radicals and other causes.

  • Keeps Skin Hydrated

It keeps skin hydrated and moisturized as well as protect from various skin diseases.

  • Maintains Skin Integrity

It contains vitamin A which helps in maintaining the skin integrity and mucus membranes integrity.

Research and other references

  1. The presence of an acetylcholie- like substance in the seeds was demonstrated by various biological tests. Apart from the presence of acetylcholine there was evidence of the presence of another active substance which had positive inotropic and chronotropic effects on the frog’s heart ( lal & rao, 1964)

 

  1. The jack exudes a latex which shows bacteriolytic This activity is about four times higher in the latex drawn from young branches. Bark latex contains a large amount of resin (85%) which has good value in
    manufacture of varnishes and is used to plug holes in earthen ware. The best bird-lime is also prepared from it; mixed with vinegar,   the latex promotes healing of abscesses [Shukla & Krishnamurti,   J sci industr Res,
    1961, 20C, 225; Sham Singh et al, 233; Kurz, II, 432; Karnick, Indian Drugs Pharnmc Ind, 1970, 5(2), 1].

 

  1. Latex   from   the   fruits   contains   cycloartenone, cycloartenol, 31-sitosterol, butyrospermol and amino acids –leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine and valine (Barton, J chem Soc, 1951, 1444; Mahato et al, Bull Calcutta Sch trop Med, 1967, 15, 100; Shukla & Krishnamurti, J sci industr Res, 1971, 30, 642).

 

  1. The rind has good jellying properties. It yields a colourless essential   oil (0.03%)   having   an   odour resembling that of the fruit. The oil has the following characteristics: dg, 0.9124; n];5°, 1,4862 (Francis & Bell, cit.; Balardo et al, loc. cit.).

 

  1. The   wood   is   moderately   hard;   sapwood   pale, heartwood bright yellow, darkening on exposure. The average weight is 595 kg/cum. The timber polishes   well and does not warp and split. It seasons without any trouble and is not attacked by white ants or fungi. It is durable (ay. life 120-179 months). The comparative suitability   of hill   grown   and   plain   grown   timber, expressed respectively as the percentages of the same properties of teak, are:   wt, 91, 84; strength as a beam, 87, 68; stiffness as a beam, 89, 66; suitability as a post, 88, 67; shock-resisting ability, 77, 63; retention of shape, 87, 100; shear, 101, 96; hardness, 99, It is largely used for carpentry, boxes and furniture and occasionally for cabinet work, turning and brush-backs. It is suitable for musical instruments like Veena and Tanpura. Second-grade slates are also manufactured out of it. A yellow dye obtained by boiling the wood or saw dust and fixed by alum is used by priests for dyeing robes. Saw dust has been tried as a source of oxalic acid [Gamble, 653; IS: 399-1963; Sekhar & Gulati, Indian For Rec, NS, Timb Mech, 1969, 2(1), 25; Murthy, loc. cit.; Ponniah, Proc Indian Sci Cong, 1956, pt III, 246; Puri & Gupta, Indian
    For, 1954, 80, 352].

 

  1. The heartwood on analysis yields: moisture, 7; glucosides, 38.0; lipids, 0.7; albumin, 1.7; and cellulose,59.0%. It contains several flavone colouring matters, viz. morin,   dihydromorin,   cyanomaclurin,   artocarpin, isoartocarpin,   norartocarpin,   cycloartocarpin,   arto-carpesin,   cycloartocarpesin,   oxydihydroartocarpesin, artocarpetin,   norartocarpetin,   cycloartinone,   and artocarpanone. Sucrose and ellagic acid are also present (Chem Abstr, 1959, 53, 20792; Dave & Venkataraman, J sci industr Res, 1956, 15B, Lett, 1962, 9; Radhakrishnan et al, ibid, 1965, 663; Radhakrishnan & Rao, Indian J Chem, 1966, 4, 406; Parthasarathy et al, ibid, 1969, 7,101; venkataraman,Phytochemistry, 1972, 11, 1571; Sherbeiny et al, Qualit Plant Mat Veg, 1970-71, 20, 297).
  2. Bark from the main trunk contains betulinic acid and two   new   flavone   pigments,   cycloheterophyllin (C301-13007,     mp 205-06°)   and   isocycloheterophyllin (yellow needles, m p 231′). Triterpenic compounds like cycloartenyl acetate, cycloartenol and cycloartenone are also reported to be present. The bark contains tannin (3.3%) and is reported to be used in dyeing and tanning (Rao et al, Indian J Chem, 1971, 9, 7; 1973, n, 298; Pavanasasivain & Sultanbawa, Phytochemistry, 1973, 12, 2725; Sherbeiny et a/, loc. cit.; Chopra et al, 1958, 496).

 

  1. The leaves and stems show the presence of sapogenins. The leaves yield cycloartenone, cycloarteno1,13-sitosterol, and   tannins.   They   show estrogenic   activity.   Root contains   fi-sitosterol,   ursolic   acid,   betulinic   acid, cycloartenone   and   a new compound, artoflavanone (C24H2807, m p 141-421 (Anzaldo et al, Philipp J Sci, 1957, 86, 233;Mahato et al, Bull Calcutta Sch trop Med, 1967, 15, 100; Sherbeiny et a/, cit.; Chem Abstr, 1967, 67, 71095; Dayal & Seshadri, Indian J Chem, 1974, 12, 895)

 

  1. Bark yields a cordage fibre. The leaves are used as fodder,   and seem to be particularly relished by goats. Dining plates are made by stitching together the leaves. Jack being an evergreen tree, considerable fall of leaves occurs throughout the year and this forms a good mulch covering and enriches the soil. The outer rind of the fruit is a prized cattle feed, relished by cattle as such or after mixing with rice gruel. The jackfruit waste is superior to green grass in nutrient content and can substitute the latter to a large extent in the feeding of cattle (Sham Singh et al, 233; Murthy, loc. cit.; Ananthasubramaniam et al, Indian J Nutr Dietet. 1978, 15, 12).
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