Berberis Aristata

Botanical Name: Berberis Aristata

Sanskrit Name: Daruharidra

Family Name: Berberidaceae

Description

Vernacular names :

  1. Hindi – Daruhaldi
  2. English- Indian Berbery
  3. Malayalam –maramanjal
  4. Tamil –Mara Manzal

Synonyms –Darunisa, Pita daru, Pacampaca, Katankateri, Parjani,Darvi

Ganas in classical texts:

Charaka: Arsoghna, Kandughna, LekhaniyaLaksadi

Susruta: Haridradi, Mustadi

Vagbhata:Haridradi, Mustadi

Introduction of Bacopa Monnieri Linn

In the Vedic literature, ‘KesavaPaddhati’ describes ‘Daruharidra along with Haridra in the management of Khalitya for topical application (Ke. Pa. 30/10). It is extensively used in the Ayurvedic therapeutics.

Controversial Studies

Actually, there is no controversy over identification of this herb. Due to non-availability another herb Cociniumfenestratum (MENISPERMACEA) is used in South India as Ddruharidra

There are three well identified Berberis species viz, (1) The rocky mountain group B. aquifoliumPursh (2) The Asiatic group i.e.; B. aristata DC and (3) The European group i.e.; B. vulgaris Linn.

Probably Dalhana identified the second variety of Daruharidra during his period. He quoted ‘Kaliyakam’ as a herb which is similar to Daruharidra and known as “Malayadrichandana”.

Other species of Berberis viz., B. asiaticaRoxb.ex Dc., B. lyciumRoyle etc., are also used as substitutes.

From the above description it is apparent that both the South North Indian Vaids are using C. fenestratum and B. aristata as Ddruhardrd. Both the plants are rich in berberine and therefore there should be no hitch in their vice-versa utility. The main controversy appears with the extract of Daruharidra which is described as Rasanjana. Charaka mentioned ‘Rasanjana’ for Sravana (TiksnaAnjana). With the advent of Rasa Sanjanais also two types viz., herbal and mineral

Varieties :

Direct reference about different varieties of Bacopa Monnieri Linn is not observed in the ancient texts. But Dalhana quoted ‘Daruharidra’ and ‘Kaliyaka’ as two plants which look alike i.e.; B. aristata and C. fenestratum.

Botanical details

  1. aristata– A large deciduous shrub, 1.8-3.6m high.Twigs whitish or pale yellowish brown, deeply furrowed, rough.

Leaves-3.8-10 by 1.5-3.3 cm, obovate or elliptic, entire or spinous¬toothed, base gradually narrowed, dark green above, pale be¬neath.Petiole 0-4 mm. Inflorescence a simple drooping raceme, 2.5-7.5 cm. long.densely-flowred.

Fruit- 7-10 mm. long, ovoid, blue-black, distinct style.

  1. fenestratum– A climbing shrub. Branches covered with fuscous-cinerous bark, striate, when young yellow-tomentose

Leaves– coriaceous, shining above and tomentose beneath, rotund-ovate or broadly cordate, 15-25 by 12-25 cm.

Inflorescence¬supra-axillary with yellow flowers

Distribution

Himalayas from Chota.Banghal to Nepal, 6.500¬10.500 ft.

Chemical constituents

B.aristata- Karachine (a protoberberine alkaloid), taxilamine, berberine, palmatine, jatrorrhizine, oxycanthine.

C.fenestratum- Berberine, berberrubine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine, berlambine, oxypalmatine etc.

Properties

Rasa –tikta, kasaya

Guna –laghu, ruksha

Virya – usna

Vipaka –katu

Karma –kapha- pittahara, chedana

Indications

Prameha, Kustha, Netraroga, Svetapradara, Kamala, Vrina, Visarpa,

Part used –Root, Stern, Fruit, extract (Rasanjana)

Dosage

Decoction 50-100m1; fruit powder 5-10g; extract 1-3g

Therapeutic uses

  1. Svetapradara- Decoction of Daruharidra(Berberis Aristata) is given with honey
  2. Pistameha- Decoction of Haridra and Daruharidra(Berberis Aristata) is useful
  3. Vrddhi (kaphaja)- Daruharidra(Berberis Aristata) paste is taken with cow’s urine
  4. Miitrakrcchra – Juice of Daruharidra(Berberis Aristata) and Amalaki with honey

Preparations

Darvighrta, Darvyadikvatha, Darvyaditaila, Darvyadileha

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