Cissampelos Pareira Linn

Botanical Name: Cissampelos Pareira Linn

Sanskrit Name: Patha

Family Name: MENISPERMACEAE

Description

Vernacular names :

  1. Hindi – Padhi, Padha
  2. Kannada –Padavali
  3. Malayalam –Kattuvalli
  4. Tamil –Appatta

Synonyms –Ambastha, Papacelika, Pracina, Varatikta, Aviddhakarni, Piluphala, Kuchelika, Ekasthila

Ganas in classical texts:

Charaka: Sandhaniya, Jvarahara, Stanyasodhana

Susruta: Mustadi, Aragvadhadi, Pippalyadi, Ambasthadi,

Brihatyddi, Patoladi

Vagbhata:Mustadi, Aragvadhadi, Ambasthadi, Patoladi,

Vatsakadi

Introduction

In the Vedic literature Patha is described as ‘Pata’. Synonyms like :Uttanaparna, Devajuta, Sahamana, Sahiyas and Sahasvatare also mentioned. Vedic texts quoted it as Viryavati, Visaghna, Raksoghna, Medhya, Kamya and Garbhasthapana. Rigveda delineates it as Sapatanibadhana and Vasikarana. In Atharvaveda it is utilized for improving the I.Q and conquering the opponent during debates. Sayana considered its as Uttanaparna.

Controversial Studies

Patha(Cissampelos Pareira Linn) and Ambastha have been described under Tiktaskandha and Kasayaskandha respectively by Charaka. Thus they are two different plants. Susruta and Vagbhata have described Ambasthadigana.Dalhana has identified Ambastha with Pathaor Machika.

Charaka mentioned ‘Ambastha’ under Sandhaniya group and Patha under Stanyashodhana&Jvarahara groups. Both Susruta In the remaining groups (e.g. Mustadi, Aragvadhadi etc.) they did use the name Patha. Commenting on the plant Ambastha, Arunadatta as well as Hemadri considered it as ‘Mayurasikha’

Varieties :

Charaka mentioned two varieties of Patha ,whereasSusruta and Vagbhata described one variety. Charaka did mention Patha and Ambasthaseperately in the Pusyanugacurna. The two varieties described by Kaiyadeva are:

  1. Raja patha   – Cycleapeltata
  2. Laghupatha – Cissampelospariera

Botanical details

  1. pareira– It is a climbing shrub; branches pubescent.

Leaves– peltate, 3.8-10 cm diametre.

Flowers- minute, yellowish.Male flowers in axillary cymes, peduncle 18mm long.Sepals 4, hairy, obovate-oblong. Petals combined into a cyathifrom corolla, half the length of the sepals. Filaments longer than Corolla.Female flowers in elongate, solitary or twin, axillary racemes; pedicles very short; bracts foliaceous or nearly sessile, orbicular or reniform.Sepal 1, ovate-oblong.Petal 1, subrotund.

Fruit– drupe, subglobose, hairy, red, endocarp transversely ridged.

  1. peltata– It is a climber

Leaves– peltate, hairy

Flowers-very small.Male flowers in panicles, very long.

Fruit– drupe.

Distribution

Found throughout tropical & sub-tropical India.

Chemical constituents

  1. pariera- Hayatin (dl-becberine), hayatinin, menismine, cissamine, pareirine, cycleanine, (-) bebeerine, hayatidin, (+) quercitol etc.
  2. peltata- Fangchinoline, cycleapeltine, cycleadrine, cycleacurine, cycleanorine, cycleahomine chloride, chondocurine, magnoflorine, isotetradrine, perpamine, cycleamine, burmannaline etc.

Properties

Rasa –tikta

Guna –laghu, tiksna

Virya – usna

Vipaka –katu

Karma –vata- kaphahara, visaghna, grahi, balya

Indications

Atisara, Chardi, Sula, Jvara, Kustha, Kandu, Krmi, Hridroga, Gulma, Yoni roga.

Part used –root

Dosage

powder 1-3g; decoction 50-100ml

Therapeutic uses

(1)     Arthavabhedaka— Root juice of Patha shall be used as Nasya

(2)     Lavanameha— Decoction of Patha and Aguru is useful

(3)     Arsas— Patha(Cissampelos Pareira Linn) is taken with butter-milk

Preparations

Pusyanugachoorna, Saddharana yoga

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