Mimusops Elengi Linn

Botanical Name: Mimusops Elengi Linn

Sanskrit Name: Bakula

Family Name: Sapotaceae

Description

Vernacular names :

  1. Hindi – moulasiri
  2. Kannada –bakula
  3. Malayalam –elengi
  4. Tamil –vagulam, magadam
  5. Marathi – Bakuli
  6. Konkani – Omval

Synonyms

Chira puspa, Madhugandha, Kesara, Sthirapuspa

Introduction

Mimusops Elengi Linn is a medium sized tree with white and fragrant flowers.

Charaka and Susruta have delinetedBakula in their Texts while Vagbhata did not. Bhavamisra described two varieties of Bakula i.e.; Bakula and Baka (Brihat Bakula). The later variety is identified with Osmanthus fragrans Linn.

Botanical details

A small to large evergreen tree found in the Deccan  Peninsula   and   Andaman Islands, and frequently cultivated in gardens for ornament ; it is grown also as an avenue or shade tree throughout the greater part of India. Bark dark grey, fissured ; leaves   variable, elliptic, oblong or oblanceolate ; flowers axillary, solitary or in fascicles, small, creamy white. star-shaped, fragrant : berry ovoid, containing rarely 2 seeds yellow when ripe : seeds ovoid, compressed, greyish brown, shining.

The tree attains large dimensions in the moist evergreen forests of western ghats : in the eastern ghats. it is found in dry areas, often on laterite, and is comparatively small in size. In Andamans it attains a height tip to 35 in. with a bole c. 6 in. long x 2.5 m. girth. The tree is a shade bearer and appears to reproduce well under shade. It is best propagated by sowing seeds singly in baskets and planting out seedlings in the field usually after two years, in the rainy season. The rate of growth is slow (Troup, II, 637-38),

Distribution

Deccan peninsula, Andaman islands and throughout greater part of india

Chemical constituents

Quercitol, lupeol, oleic & linoleic acids, taraxerol, meso-inositol etc.

Properties

Rasa – kasaya, katu

Guna – guru, snigdha

Virya – sita

Vipaka –katu

Karma –kapha – pitta hara, grahi, hridya, dantya

Indications

Danta roga, svitra, atisara, krimi

Part used

Root, bark, stem bark, fruit and flower

Dosage

Decoction 50-100 ml, powder 1-3g

Therapeutic uses

  • Chala Danta : Using the seed powder of Bakula as tooth powder
  • Toothache:Bark powder is applied.
  • Teeth cleaning, strengthening gums:Tender twigs are used for teeth cleaning.
  • Loose teeth:Unripe fruits are used as masticatory.
  • Improving fertility in women:Fruit pulp is eaten.
  • Promoting delivery:Ripe fruit is given to promote delivery.
  • Causing miscarriage or abortion: Fruits are sometimes used for abortion.
  • Eyesight weakness, Diseases of Eyes:7-14 ml. leaf juice is taken twice daily with honey.
  • Brain tonic:The powder of dried flower is eaten as brain tonic.
  • Chronic diarrhea, Weakness after diarrhea:The fruit pulp is eaten.
  • Headache:The dried flower powder is used a snuff in case of headache.

Preparations

Bakuladya tailam

Research

(1) The leaf extract showed antibacterial activity in vitro (Satyanarayana et al; 1977).

(2) Ethanolic extract 90%) of the fruits and leaves showed hypotensive effect in dog (Sharma et al; 1978).

(3) The 50% ethanolic extract (whole plant excluding roots) showed diuretic action in rats (Aswal et al; 1984).

(4) Saponin from seeds has been reported to have spermicidal activity (Benerji et al; 1978).

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