Oxalis Corniculata Linn

Botanical Name: Oxalis corniculata Linn

Sanskrit Name: Changeri

Family Name: Oxalidaceae

Description

Vernacular names :

Common name – creeping wood sorrel

Hindi – tinapattiya

Telugu –pulichinta

Malayalam –puliparel

Tamil –puliayria

Synonyms

Amlapatrika, Catuschada, Cukrika, Dantasatha

Ganas in classical texts:

Charaka: sakavarga

Susruta: sakavarga

Vagbhata:sakavarga

Introduction

Changeri (Oxalis Corniculata Linn) is described in the Brihat Trayi among the vegetable category. But it is found to be extensively used   and included   in   the Amlavargadravyas of Rasa  Sastra.

Charakaand Susruta have highlighted its utility in Grahani and   Arsas.

Controversial Studies

Though Bhavamisra denoted changeri, Cukrika, Dantasatha, Ambastha, AmlaLonika etc.,   as the   synonyms,   Changeri and Cukrika are described as different herbs   in the CCIM syllabus. Dalhana quoted and   herb   Sunisannah which   is similar to Changeri as Siravalika i.e.; Celosia argentia Linn. (Arnaranthaceae).Bapalal considered Sunisannaka as Marseliaquadrifolia. Therefore all   there plants appear to   be   different. Cukrika is identified as Rumexvesicarius Linn.   Some consider Oxalis acetosella Linn   as Cafigeri

Botanical details of Oxalis Corniculata Linn

An   appressed-pubesent, diffuse,   perennial creeping herb. Leaves- palmately 3- foliolate, long-petioled, stipulate ;   leaflets obcordate.

Flowers-yellow, borne in 2-8   flowered umbelliform   inflorescence.

Fruits-subcylindric. Tomentose or glabrous, 5-angles capsules. Seeds- numerous, transversely ribbed dark-brown. (Flowers   round the year, but mostly   during   sept- oct)

(Note:-Leaves   of Marseliaminuta are quadrifoliate and may, be it is the real   source of Catuspatri but not Oxalis corniculatus

Distribution

A small annual or perennial, procumbent or more or less erect herb, 6-25 cm: high, found throughout the warmer parts of India ascending up to an altitude of 3,000 m in North-West Himalayas

Chemical constituents

Malic acid, tartaric, citric acids, vitexin, isovitexin etc.

Properties

Rasa –amla, kasaya

Guna –laghu, ruksha

Virya – usna

Vipaka –amla

Karma –kapha- vatahara, deepana, grahi

Indications

Grahani, atisara, kustha, deepana, grahi

Part used

Whole plant, leaves

Dosage

Fresh juice 5-10ml

Therapeutic uses

  • Unmada-   Juice   of Changeri,   Kanijika and jaggery (equal parts)   shall   be churned together and administered orally
  • Arsas- The leaves of Trivrt, Danti,   Changeri and   Citrakuare   fried in a mixture of ghee   and   gingely oil.   Then they are mixed   with curd and taken   orally   (C.S.Ci.14).

Preparations

  1. Changerighrita
  2. Nagaradighrita
  3. Sunisnkachangerighrita

Research studies

  1. corniculata is a very common weed in cultivated and fallow lands, gardens and waste lands, particularly in moist and   shady localities. It spreads   rapidlyby means   of numerous   small underground tubers. Often it is a troublesome weed difficult to eradicate, but can be kept under control by frequent   hoeing and intercultivation. In tea estates- it forms a useful constituent of   mixed   cover,   protecting soil from erosion. It can also be used as green manure, as it contains appreciable quantities of organic matter, nitrogen, potash and phosphoric acid [Puttarudriah, Mysore agric. ].,   1956, 31; 146; Edwards   &Srivastava,   Allahabad   Fmr,   1954,   28(3),   86;   Mudaliar&Rao,   127;   Peradeniya Manual,   No.   7,   1951 ;Joachim &Pandittesekere, Trop. Agriculturist, 1930, 74, 277].
  2. The leaves of the plant are pleasantly acid and refreshing, and are eaten both   raw as a salad and cooked as a pot-herb ; they are also used for making sandwiches, chutneys and pickles. They are injurious if eaten in excess. The plants, if eaten by dairy cows, cause difficulty in churning the cream to butter. The seeds of the   plant are eaten   in   times   of famine [Santapau, Rec.   bot. Suro. India,   1953, 16(1),. 35; Burkill, II, 1616; Williams, 396; Mayuranathan, 57; Bhargava, J. Bombay nat, Hist. Soc.,   1959, 56, zp ; Forsyth, Bull. Minist. Agric.,   Lond., No. 1611954-, 10’2].
  3. Leaves are a good source of vitamin   C (125 rn_g./ 100 g.) and carotene (3.6 mg./ 100 g.); they are rich in calcium (5.6%, dry material) but the entire amount is unavailable to the system because of the high content of oxalates (12%, dry material). The leaves and stem contain tartaric and citric- acids ;   sterns contain also malic acid. A crystalline principle (m.p. 103—04°} which   produces   fatal   hypoglycemic   convulsions   in rabbits has been isolated from the plant (Basu et al., J. Indian chem. Soc.,   1947, 24, 358; Iengar&- Rau, Ann. Biochem.,   1952, 12, 41 ;   Govindarajan&Sreenivasaya, Curr. Sci., 1951, 20, 43; Chem. Abstr., 1952, 46, 1219).
  4. An   aqueous   extract of the plant shows activity against Micrococcus pyogenes var. aureus. Expressed juice of the entire plant shows activity against Gram positive bacteria. In Australia, the plant is suspected of   causing   sheep   mortalities   with   symptoms ofstaggering and trembling (Ceorge et al., J. sci. industr. Res., 1947, 6B, 42; Nickell, Econ. Bot., 1959, 13, 281 ;Webb, Bull. Coun. sci. industr. Res. Aust., No, 232, 1948,   123).
  5. The plant possesses astringent, vermifuge, ernmenagogue and antiseptic   properties. Fresh juice of the plant cures dyspepsia, piles, anaemia and tympanitis. The   leaves   of   the   plant   are   considered   cooling, refrigerant, stornachic, antiscorbutic and appetizing. They are used in fevers, dysentery, scurvy and bilious- ness, and for removing corns,   warts   and   other excrescences of the skin. An infusion of leaves is used to remove opacities of the cornea; it is dropped into sore eyes for itching lids. Leaf juice is also given to counteract the intoxication produced by the seeds of Datura. A decoction   of leaves is used as a gargle (Roi, 377;   Lewis,   75;   Kirt.   &Basu,   I,   437-38; Nadkarni, I, 890; Chopra, 1958, 598, 681 ; Burkill, II, 1616; Mooss, 102)

Courtesy : The Wealth of India series , DravyaGuna by Dr. J.L.N. Sastry , InidanMateriaMedica by VaidyaBhagwan Dash , DravyaGuna by Dr. GnjanendraPandey

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