Tylophora Indica

Botanical Name: Tylophora Indica

Sanskrit Name: Antahmul

Family Name: Asclepiadaceae

Description

Vernacular names

Common name – Indian Ipecac

  1. Hindi – jangli – pikwam
  2. Kannada –adumutadgagida
  3. Malayalam –vallipaala
  4. Tamil –nach- churuppam, nanja- murich- chaan
  5. Marathi – khodki raasna, pikari
  6. Bengali – antomul, ananthamul

Botanical details

A branching climber, 1.5 in. high, found in Assam, West Bengal, Orissa and the peninsular India, ascending to an altitude of 900 m.; also occurs in the Car Nicobar islands. Rootstocks short, knotty, 3.2 mm. thick; roots numerous, fine, 15 cm. long, very brittle, consisting of fibres or fibrils; leaves ovate to orbicular, cordate-based, 3-10 cm. long, thick; flowers greenish yellow outside, purplish within, in many-flowered umbels; follicles fusiform, divaricate, 5 cm. x10 cm., striate; seeds ovate, elongated into 2.0-2.5 cm. long coma.

Distribution

found in Assam, West Bengal, Orissa and the peninsular India, ascending to an altitude of 900 m

Indications

Antamul (Tylophora Indica) herbs used to treating various diseases such as cough, asthma, respiratory problems, bronchitis, flatulence, profuse perspiration, constipation, diarrhoea, bitter taste in mouth etc.

Tylophora indica leaves are expectorant and used to treat respiratory infections, bronchitis and whooping cough. A clinical trial done on asthmatic patients has found that Tylophora indica fresh leaves chewed and swallowed daily with water in the early morning, empty stomach for a week gives moderate or complete relief of asthma symptoms.

Its root or leaf powder is used in diarrhoea, dysentery and intermittent malarial fever.

Anantamul has also analgesic property due to which it gives relief in earache, cystitis and lumbago.

Part used

Whole plant

Therapeutic uses

Asthma, respiratory problems, cough, sore throat

Take 3-4 leaves of antamul. Now wash leaves to clean the dirt and chew empty stomach. Drink glass of lukewarm water.

Whooping cough, allergy problem, bronchitis in children

This remedy can be used to cure cough, bronchitis in children. Take 1/4 leaves of antamul. Grind it and mix with honey. Give this to child.

Cold and cough

Take 2 fresh leaves of Tylophora indica, Basil leaves, clove and ginger. Make decoction. Filter and drink to cure cold and cough.

Research, studies and other information

  • The roots have a sweetish taste turning acrid, pleasant aromatic odour, and a brittle fracture. They possess stimulant, emetic, cathartic, expectorant, stomachic and diaphoretic properties and are used for the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, whooping-cough, dysentery and diarrhoea; they are reported to be given in rheumatic and gouty pains. The roots are said to possess bacteriostatic properties and have been suggested to be a good natural preservative of food. The roots and leaves are alsoreported to be used in hydrophobia. The leaves ace employed to destroy vermin [Datta & Mukerji, Bull. Pharmacogn. Lab., No. 1, 1950, 93-94; Rao, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., 1948, 28A, 173; Nadkarni, I, 252; 11, 1252-53; Koman, 1920, III, 9; Kirt. &Basu,111, 1632; Chopra & Chopra, Spec. Rep., Indian Court. nzed. Res., No. 30, 1955, 108; Dastur, Medicinal Plants, 240; Cameron, 195; Dymock, Warden & Hooper, III, 439; Shivpuri et al., J. As’s. Physicians India, 1968, 16(1), 9; U.S.D., 1955, 1913; Hocking, 235; Agarwal & Saha,.1. Andhra Pradesh Akad. Sci., 1968, 2, 31; Kirt. & Basu, lit, 1632).
  • The leaves and roots have often been employed as a substitute for ipecacuanha; the dried leaves are reported to be more uniform and certain in their action than the roots. In large doses, the dried leaves may cause fatal poisoning. The roots are generally exported from South India, where it is one of the commonest plants in the fields   and low sandy jungles (Ratnagiriswaran   & Venkatachalam, Indian J. med. Res., 1935, 22, 433; Chopra et al., ibid., 1935, 23, 263; Kirt. & Basu,1632; Chopra et al., 1, 585; U.S.D., 1955, 1913; Datta & Mukerji, loc.cit).
  • The powdered leaves, stem and root contain 0.2-0.3 per cent (up to 0.42-0.46 %) of alkaloids. The alkaloidal content is not affected by seasonal variations. The alkaloids present are tylophorine (C24112,04N; m.p. 286-87° decomp.) and tylophorinine (C23H250N; m.p. 248-49°). Both the alkaloids are pharmacOlogically active, and are reported to have caused dermatitis, producing itching, redness, swelling and eruptions on the skin. Tylophorine is toxic to Paranzoecium caudatum in concentrations of 1 in 50,000 or more. The MLD for frogs is 0.4 mg./g. body-wt. Its toxicity for mice and guineapigs is very low. It has no irritant action locally or when injected subcutaneously or intramuscularly. It has a marked stimulating effect on both the striped and unstriped muscles, and a distinct depressing effect on the musculature of heart. The blood-pressure is lowered when a dose is administered but is raised soon after and is maintained at a level higher than the normal for a fairly tong time (Ratnagiriswaran & Venkatachalam, loc. cit.; Chopra et al., loc. cit.; Govindachari et al., Tetrahedron, 1958, 4, 311; 1961, 14, 284, 288; 1965, 21, 2573; Govindachari et al,., Chem. & Ind., 1959, 950;1960, 966; Chopra et al., 1, 585).
  • Recently, the leaves of the plant have attracted attention in the treatment of bronchial asthma. Preli-minary clinical trials on patients of bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis, carried out at the Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, Delhi, have indicated marked relief in symptoms for a few weeks in 40-50 per cent of the cases, after a small doge of 3-6 leaves only. A highincidence of side-effects (sore mouth, loss of taste, vomiting, etc.) was observed in 75 per cent of the cases. There appeared to be a direct relationship in several patients between the high incidence of side-effects and high degree of relief in symptoms. The L1350 of the crude alcoholic extract of the drug was found to be 2 mg./kg. The extract was also reported to suppress histamine response (Shivpuri et al., loc. cit.; Annu. Rep. Indian med. Res., 1967-68, 65).
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