Botanical Name: Berberis Aristata
Sanskrit Name: Daruharidra
Family Name: Berberidaceae
Vernacular names :
- Hindi – Daruhaldi
- English- Indian Berbery
- Malayalam –maramanjal
- Tamil –Mara Manzal
Synonyms –Darunisa, Pita daru, Pacampaca, Katankateri, Parjani,Darvi
Ganas in classical texts:
Charaka: Arsoghna, Kandughna, LekhaniyaLaksadi
Susruta: Haridradi, Mustadi
Introduction of Bacopa Monnieri Linn
In the Vedic literature, ‘KesavaPaddhati’ describes ‘Daruharidra along with Haridra in the management of Khalitya for topical application (Ke. Pa. 30/10). It is extensively used in the Ayurvedic therapeutics.
Actually, there is no controversy over identification of this herb. Due to non-availability another herb Cociniumfenestratum (MENISPERMACEA) is used in South India as Ddruharidra
There are three well identified Berberis species viz, (1) The rocky mountain group B. aquifoliumPursh (2) The Asiatic group i.e.; B. aristata DC and (3) The European group i.e.; B. vulgaris Linn.
Probably Dalhana identified the second variety of Daruharidra during his period. He quoted ‘Kaliyakam’ as a herb which is similar to Daruharidra and known as “Malayadrichandana”.
Other species of Berberis viz., B. asiaticaRoxb.ex Dc., B. lyciumRoyle etc., are also used as substitutes.
From the above description it is apparent that both the South North Indian Vaids are using C. fenestratum and B. aristata as Ddruhardrd. Both the plants are rich in berberine and therefore there should be no hitch in their vice-versa utility. The main controversy appears with the extract of Daruharidra which is described as Rasanjana. Charaka mentioned ‘Rasanjana’ for Sravana (TiksnaAnjana). With the advent of Rasa Sanjanais also two types viz., herbal and mineral
Direct reference about different varieties of Bacopa Monnieri Linn is not observed in the ancient texts. But Dalhana quoted ‘Daruharidra’ and ‘Kaliyaka’ as two plants which look alike i.e.; B. aristata and C. fenestratum.
- aristata– A large deciduous shrub, 1.8-3.6m high.Twigs whitish or pale yellowish brown, deeply furrowed, rough.
Leaves-3.8-10 by 1.5-3.3 cm, obovate or elliptic, entire or spinous¬toothed, base gradually narrowed, dark green above, pale be¬neath.Petiole 0-4 mm. Inflorescence a simple drooping raceme, 2.5-7.5 cm. long.densely-flowred.
Fruit- 7-10 mm. long, ovoid, blue-black, distinct style.
- fenestratum– A climbing shrub. Branches covered with fuscous-cinerous bark, striate, when young yellow-tomentose
Leaves– coriaceous, shining above and tomentose beneath, rotund-ovate or broadly cordate, 15-25 by 12-25 cm.
Inflorescence¬supra-axillary with yellow flowers
Himalayas from Chota.Banghal to Nepal, 6.500¬10.500 ft.
B.aristata- Karachine (a protoberberine alkaloid), taxilamine, berberine, palmatine, jatrorrhizine, oxycanthine.
C.fenestratum- Berberine, berberrubine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine, berlambine, oxypalmatine etc.
Rasa –tikta, kasaya
Guna –laghu, ruksha
Virya – usna
Karma –kapha- pittahara, chedana
Prameha, Kustha, Netraroga, Svetapradara, Kamala, Vrina, Visarpa,
Part used –Root, Stern, Fruit, extract (Rasanjana)
Decoction 50-100m1; fruit powder 5-10g; extract 1-3g
Therapeutic uses –
- Svetapradara- Decoction of Daruharidra(Berberis Aristata) is given with honey
- Pistameha- Decoction of Haridra and Daruharidra(Berberis Aristata) is useful
- Vrddhi (kaphaja)- Daruharidra(Berberis Aristata) paste is taken with cow’s urine
- Miitrakrcchra – Juice of Daruharidra(Berberis Aristata) and Amalaki with honey
Darvighrta, Darvyadikvatha, Darvyaditaila, Darvyadileha