Oxalis Corniculata Linn
Botanical Name: Oxalis corniculata Linn
Sanskrit Name: Changeri
Family Name: Oxalidaceae
Vernacular names :
Common name – creeping wood sorrel
Hindi – tinapattiya
Amlapatrika, Catuschada, Cukrika, Dantasatha
Ganas in classical texts:
Changeri (Oxalis Corniculata Linn) is described in the Brihat Trayi among the vegetable category. But it is found to be extensively used and included in the Amlavargadravyas of Rasa Sastra.
Charakaand Susruta have highlighted its utility in Grahani and Arsas.
Though Bhavamisra denoted changeri, Cukrika, Dantasatha, Ambastha, AmlaLonika etc., as the synonyms, Changeri and Cukrika are described as different herbs in the CCIM syllabus. Dalhana quoted and herb Sunisannah which is similar to Changeri as Siravalika i.e.; Celosia argentia Linn. (Arnaranthaceae).Bapalal considered Sunisannaka as Marseliaquadrifolia. Therefore all there plants appear to be different. Cukrika is identified as Rumexvesicarius Linn. Some consider Oxalis acetosella Linn as Cafigeri
Botanical details of Oxalis Corniculata Linn
An appressed-pubesent, diffuse, perennial creeping herb. Leaves- palmately 3- foliolate, long-petioled, stipulate ; leaflets obcordate.
Flowers-yellow, borne in 2-8 flowered umbelliform inflorescence.
Fruits-subcylindric. Tomentose or glabrous, 5-angles capsules. Seeds- numerous, transversely ribbed dark-brown. (Flowers round the year, but mostly during sept- oct)
(Note:-Leaves of Marseliaminuta are quadrifoliate and may, be it is the real source of Catuspatri but not Oxalis corniculatus
A small annual or perennial, procumbent or more or less erect herb, 6-25 cm: high, found throughout the warmer parts of India ascending up to an altitude of 3,000 m in North-West Himalayas
Malic acid, tartaric, citric acids, vitexin, isovitexin etc.
Rasa –amla, kasaya
Guna –laghu, ruksha
Virya – usna
Karma –kapha- vatahara, deepana, grahi
Grahani, atisara, kustha, deepana, grahi
Whole plant, leaves
Fresh juice 5-10ml
- Unmada- Juice of Changeri, Kanijika and jaggery (equal parts) shall be churned together and administered orally
- Arsas- The leaves of Trivrt, Danti, Changeri and Citrakuare fried in a mixture of ghee and gingely oil. Then they are mixed with curd and taken orally (C.S.Ci.14).
- corniculata is a very common weed in cultivated and fallow lands, gardens and waste lands, particularly in moist and shady localities. It spreads rapidlyby means of numerous small underground tubers. Often it is a troublesome weed difficult to eradicate, but can be kept under control by frequent hoeing and intercultivation. In tea estates- it forms a useful constituent of mixed cover, protecting soil from erosion. It can also be used as green manure, as it contains appreciable quantities of organic matter, nitrogen, potash and phosphoric acid [Puttarudriah, Mysore agric. ]., 1956, 31; 146; Edwards &Srivastava, Allahabad Fmr, 1954, 28(3), 86; Mudaliar&Rao, 127; Peradeniya Manual, No. 7, 1951 ;Joachim &Pandittesekere, Trop. Agriculturist, 1930, 74, 277].
- The leaves of the plant are pleasantly acid and refreshing, and are eaten both raw as a salad and cooked as a pot-herb ; they are also used for making sandwiches, chutneys and pickles. They are injurious if eaten in excess. The plants, if eaten by dairy cows, cause difficulty in churning the cream to butter. The seeds of the plant are eaten in times of famine [Santapau, Rec. bot. Suro. India, 1953, 16(1),. 35; Burkill, II, 1616; Williams, 396; Mayuranathan, 57; Bhargava, J. Bombay nat, Hist. Soc., 1959, 56, zp ; Forsyth, Bull. Minist. Agric., Lond., No. 1611954-, 10’2].
- Leaves are a good source of vitamin C (125 rn_g./ 100 g.) and carotene (3.6 mg./ 100 g.); they are rich in calcium (5.6%, dry material) but the entire amount is unavailable to the system because of the high content of oxalates (12%, dry material). The leaves and stem contain tartaric and citric- acids ; sterns contain also malic acid. A crystalline principle (m.p. 103—04°} which produces fatal hypoglycemic convulsions in rabbits has been isolated from the plant (Basu et al., J. Indian chem. Soc., 1947, 24, 358; Iengar&- Rau, Ann. Biochem., 1952, 12, 41 ; Govindarajan&Sreenivasaya, Curr. Sci., 1951, 20, 43; Chem. Abstr., 1952, 46, 1219).
- An aqueous extract of the plant shows activity against Micrococcus pyogenes var. aureus. Expressed juice of the entire plant shows activity against Gram positive bacteria. In Australia, the plant is suspected of causing sheep mortalities with symptoms ofstaggering and trembling (Ceorge et al., J. sci. industr. Res., 1947, 6B, 42; Nickell, Econ. Bot., 1959, 13, 281 ;Webb, Bull. Coun. sci. industr. Res. Aust., No, 232, 1948, 123).
- The plant possesses astringent, vermifuge, ernmenagogue and antiseptic properties. Fresh juice of the plant cures dyspepsia, piles, anaemia and tympanitis. The leaves of the plant are considered cooling, refrigerant, stornachic, antiscorbutic and appetizing. They are used in fevers, dysentery, scurvy and bilious- ness, and for removing corns, warts and other excrescences of the skin. An infusion of leaves is used to remove opacities of the cornea; it is dropped into sore eyes for itching lids. Leaf juice is also given to counteract the intoxication produced by the seeds of Datura. A decoction of leaves is used as a gargle (Roi, 377; Lewis, 75; Kirt. &Basu, I, 437-38; Nadkarni, I, 890; Chopra, 1958, 598, 681 ; Burkill, II, 1616; Mooss, 102)
Courtesy : The Wealth of India series , DravyaGuna by Dr. J.L.N. Sastry , InidanMateriaMedica by VaidyaBhagwan Dash , DravyaGuna by Dr. GnjanendraPandey